Category Archives: II/14 Kappadokian

Galatian Incursions

Friday evening found a selection of armies converging on my temporary gaming room for an evening of DBA. As it turned out a Galatian theme developed.

Our first battle of the evening found the Galatians (Ben) migrating into the provinces of Asia Minor and clashed with the Kappadokians (Andrew). The Kappadokians had suffered a series of defeats recently so were keen to turn the tables on the most recent invader.

The two armies deployed and it was soon apparent the Galatians were advancing in the centre and right. This rapid advance by the Galatian centre was countered by a thrust against the Galatian left flank through various rocky paths over an area of basalt peaks. Below, the Galatians prepare to engage the Kappadokian centre which is already scattered. Visible in the Galatian line is a Scythed Chariot.

As both armies manoeuvred they slowly became more disjointed with the likely result the struggle would be prolonged. However, a sudden series of attacks were launched by the Kappadokians with great elan and surprisingly the Galatian morale shattered as each attack was driven home with devastating results. The Galatians fled suffering a devastating 4-1 loss for their invasion.

Discouraged but desperate for loot the Galatians (Ben) moved west towards Greece. From here they moved south along the coast towards an army assembled by Ptolemy Keraunos (Keith). Keraunos, deploying first, placed himself in the centre of the phalanx astride one of his several elephants with the intention of smashing his way through the Galatian line. However, as the Galatans deployed he became increasingly concerned about his right flank. Seemingly oblivious to potential threats he undertook to expand his right by a series of complex manoeuvres. The Galatian left, comprising mounted, surged forward. Macedonian casualties were immediate with a portion of the phalanx breaking at first contact under the Galatian mounted onslaught. However, slowly Keraunos gained the advantage and the Galatian left was driven back.

Above an below the armies engaged. The Greek left is held by Greek mercenary peltasts (3Ax) who would fight valiantly for some time against Galatian armoured warriors (4Bd) and naked warriors (4Wb). Below, the Greek right and a portion of the centre driving back the Galatian left and centre.

Elsewhere the fighting was both intense and certainly confusing with Greek sources unclear of all events. However, slowly the Galatians gained the advantage. Keraunos himself meanwhile, at the head of his pachyderms, pressed forward driving the Galatians to his front back. Though Keraunos fought valiantly his army finally collapsed with a 4-2 victory to the Galatians.

While the Galatians focused on their plunder Ptolemy Keraunos (Keith) reformed his army and move to counter another threat, this time by Antigonus Gonatas (Andrew). Gonatas had taken the opportunity to bolster his smaller phalanx with a number of Galatians, Greece was flush with mercenaries after all! Now both commanders deployed with their phalangites in the centre. Keraunos again deployed his elephants between the taxis in a commanding position on one beast. Gonatas meanwhile deployed on his left wing with his cavalry opposite Ptolemy’s mounted. On the opposite flank both commanders deployed their thureophoroi and other mercenaries, Ptolemy’s left flank resting on an small village.

Above, Ptolemy Keraunos army on the right foreground while in the distance Gonatas’s army can be seen. In the top right a Greek fleet is visible, this fleet failed to intervene in the battle, no doubt more focussed on supplying the army, or providing morale support!

Gonatas advanced with his right leading. But it was here that he miscalculated and found his thureophoroi engaged by a portion of Keraunos phalanx. Now both commanders rushed to reinforce the battle with reserves and eventually portions of their centre.

Above and below views of the centre and Ptolemy’s left where portions of the centre of both armies are being committed, creating a gap. Below, heavy casualties have befallen the Ptolemy left taxis visible here. Yet the survivors repeatedly drove back the Galatians who themselves had suffered heavy casualties. Likewise Ptolemy’s peltasts (3Ax) fought the Gonatas taxi to a standstill – amazingly.

Meanwhile on Keraunos right flank the cavalry of both armies were now involved in deadly combat, with Keraunos reinforcing his mounted with phalangites deployed in open order. Simultaneously Ptolemy engaged Gonatas’ centre with phalanx and his elephants who desperately attempted to secure the breakthrough.

The battle was particularly confusing with first one commander then the other commander securing a small but fragile advantage, only to watch as these hard earned gains slip away.

Above, Ptolemy in the forefront of the fighting tries to turn a portion of Gonatas’ line.

Finally Gonatas, his own army near exhaustion, gained a final advantage and Keraunos’ army broke. Yet, too exhausted to seize any real advantage, the price of a 4-3 victory, Gonatas breathed easy realising that his own army had only just survived this desperate battle for domination of Greece and Macedonia.

Another outstanding evening of gaming and one that drew in the Galatians in some form into each battle. No doubt they will return as will their Greek opponents…

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Ariarathes of Kappadokia

One of my regular opponents had recently taken ownership of a new army – Ariarathid Kappadokian. Some DBA gaming on Friday evening provided him the perfect opportunity to take the field. For my part I quickly searched through possible historical opponents and in due course opted to use my Lysimachids. Given my lack of posts of late I thought a few photos and a brief summary was in order.

With a low aggression it was likely that the the Kappadokians would suffer an invasion by Lysimachus, yet it was not to be. Instead Ariarathes II invaded Lysimachos’ domains in the Spring of 299 BC at the head of an army comprising both mounted and foot in similar proportions. Lysimachos countered but with an army composed predominantly of infantry and with only a small mounted component.

Lysimachos deployed on a relatively open plain in a traditional deployment with his phalanx massed in the centre and his Thracians on the wings with his limited light horse massed on the right. However, Lysimachos had been negligent in his scouting and assumed he would be faced by hill tribesmen was somewhat taken back when Ariarathes instead deployed a considerable mounted force including a solid core of heavy cataphracts supported by light cavalry opposite his right flank. I really should check possible options for my opponents army!

Ariarathes moved with speed quickly committing his cavalry in a series of movements towards the Lysimachid right while attempting to pin the Greek phalanx with light infantry and a portion of light cavalry. Lysimachos recovering from his surprise undertook a series of reorganisations of his line. Eventually this would see his right extended and the gaps in the line occupied by the phalangites who progressively expanded their formations.

Above, the view of the battlefield with the Greeks on the left and the Kappadokians on the right. In the centre the Greek phalangites advance against Kappadokian light infantry.

Now Ariarathes hesitated and sensing his own left threatened ordered his mounted back. Lysimachos ordered his forces forward hoping to pin the retiring mounted against successive lines and eventually the rocky slopes of a rising hill to the Kappadokian left rear.

Lysimachos now trying to gain some advantage charged a body of Kappadokian light infantry at the head of his xystophoroi. Outflanked Lysimachos was pushed back but rallied his companions and charged again securing the breakthrough, above.

Charge and countercharge now followed all along the line until Ariarathes was wounded and carried from the field. With their commander wounded panic rippled through the Kappadokian army and its resolve dissipated. Lysimachos had gained a victory, despite his flawed deployment and having completely underestimated the Kappadokians.

Determined to seize the initiative Lysimachos later moved to invade the extremities of Kappadokia. For three months Lysimachos laid waste to portions of Kappadokia. Ariarathes having finally recovered from his wounds took the field in the autumn of 299 BC. Ariarathes advanced swiftly towards the Lysimachos, determined to arrest the threat to his kingdom and indeed his rule – Ariarathes was determined to be the invader. Lysimachos now fully aware of the threat to his infantry by Kappadokian cataphracts deployed his phalanx in shallower formations in a valley with a large town on his left and a series of hills on his right.

Above and below views of the battlefield with the Greeks on the left and the Kappadokians on the right. The basalt rock formations are hand made by the Kappadokian player.

With the Kappadokians constrained somewhat by a series of the steep basalt peaks Lysimachos ordered his army to advance quickly. With the phalangites in shallower formations and supported by his Thracians on the flanks Lysimachos had soon reduced Ariarathes’ options further. Unwilling to engage the Greek phalanx frontally Ariarathes ordered his light infantry to advance against the Greek right, though this was countered somewhat by Lysimachos at the head of his xystophoroi, below.

In due course Ariarathes’ advance by his left wing light troops would be supported by his cataphracts who wheeled as best they could against the Thracians. Simultaneously, Ariarathes ordered his infantry on the right flank to advance through the town and fall on the Greek left where his warriors and mercenaries had an advantage.

The cataphracts advanced and levelled their lancers for the charge.

The Thracians braced themselves and showing great determination for Lysimachos threw back many of the cataphracts. Only in the centre was the cataphract charge successful where Ariarathes, leading from the front, achieved a breakthrough. Yet before he could exploit this Lysimachos ordered forward a reserve of phalangites who soon reformed the line.

On the Greek left the Kappadokian warriors and mercenary hoplites simultaneously attacked and despite their denser formations and numeric advantages were thrown back by the Thracians and Greek light horse. Below, the Greek left pressed by Kappadokian foot including mercenary hoplites.

Demoralised by this reverse the Kappadokians here seemed unwilling to engage further.

Now the focus of the battle shifted to the centre where progressively the Greeks phalangites and supporting hoplites pressed the Kappadokian centre relentlessly while Ariarathes watched passively with his cataphracts unwilling to attack the Greeks opposite his front as he tried desperately to reinforce his centre.

The pressure on the Kappadokian centre was however too great. As dusk approached Ariarathes watched helplessly as his centre collapsed. Yet, making good his escape with the core of his army Ariarathes would clearly remain a thorn in the side of the Greek world.

In DBA terms both games were challenging for the commanders. The vagaries of the dice of course played a part. Several good PIP scores for the Kappadokian commander for example causing much consternation to the Lysimachos. Yet equally poor combat die rolls impacting several combats, particularly during the charge of the cataphracts in the second game. The Greeks were significantly out deployed and on the back foot in the first game. That they managed to recover somewhat continues to mystify me and I can, on reflection, only put this down to the dice gods.

The Greeks also had particularly difficult terrain choices due to the ability of the Kappadokians on one hand to dominate steep hills but who are equally able to deliver destructive attacks by cataphracts supported by light cavalry. This provided a quandary for the Greek player to either select an open battlefield or one more broken? Without doubt there are many more interesting interactions worth exploring between these two armies and others around Kappadokia.