Category Archives: II/14 Kappadokian

Seleucid Adventures

Some years ago I purchased a number of figures to allow me to build several Successor armies, including Seleucids. While many of the armies were built the Seleucids remained incomplete. The months soon turned into years, I am sure many of you know the story. However, over the last few weeks I have plugged away at some of the more specialty stands. Finally, my Seleucids, or a least one of the sub-lists, could take the field. Last Friday they had their first outing…

Zeuxis satrap of Lydia and faithful general of Antichos the Great advanced in the Spring of 201 BC against the unruly Kappadokians in Asia Minor. The mounted of Zeuxis’ army comprised several squadrons of agema and cataphracts, some 1200 in total. The infantry were a more an eclectic mix. The main component was of course the heavy infantry of the phalanx, some three taxeis or 6000 men. This was supported by contingents of thureophoroi, Galatian mercenaries and asiatic light infantry. Finally 50 scythed chariots and 25 pachyderms completed Zeuxis invasion force.

After having a number of cities layed waste by the advancing Seleucids the Kappadokians finally offered battle. The Kappadokian commander deployed his army amongst a series of rocky hills and wooded areas, an area well suited to his army and not at all Seleucids. While his infantry were clearly set to dominate selected areas of rocky slopes the Kappadokian heavy lancers were massed on the right centre and the cavalry, a mix of light and heavy, deployed on the right flank.

Zeuxis deployed in the open plain. His left comprising the phalanx and his heavy cavalry opposite the Kappadokian lancers while the remaining portions of his army, his centre right and right wing, deployed in front of a long ridge that separated much of the two armies.

Details of the resulting battle are unfortunately lost to history, our historian providing just a handful of words on which we can base our record. We do know however that the Seleucid right rapidly advanced to pin the Kappadokian warriors who were relatively quickly ensconced on the long rocky high ground. Here both contingents faced each other for the duration of the battle with minimal manoeuvring.

On the Seleucid left the combatants was far more active. Zeuxis aimed to lure the Kappadokians from their withdrawn position by advancing then, almost at the time of contact, retiring drawing the Kappadokians back into the open plain.

Above and below the Seleucids advance into a narrow gap against a very thin Kappadokian force. The Kappadokian light horse on the left have moved rapidly from the Kappadokian left flank to a central position.

Below, the general situation.

After advancing and just prior to the expected clash, Zeuxis issued the order and his heavy cavalry and a portion of his phalanx retired. The site was too much for the Kappadokians who now charged. Below, the Kappadokian cavalry surge forward.

The battle then became confusing and our sources quiet on the detail. Certainly neither army gained a clear immediate advantage. Kappadokian lancers tried repeatedly to break the Seleucid lines but were repeatedly thrown back. Seleucid cunning resulted in several overly enthusiastic Kappadokian units being cut down. A Kappadokian flanking movement against the extrem Seleucid left was neutralised by Seleucid cataphracts and came to nothing. Instead the fighting continued in the narrow area of good going bordered by a wooded area on one side and the long rocky hill on the other.

Yet casualties slowly mounted and after an epic struggle Zeuxis was forced to retire his phalanx in particular eventually suffering crippling casualties. Yet the Kappadokians were little better exhausted watched the Seleucids retire from the field. No doubt they would return.

Another excellent game and for me a great opportunity to field a new army, even if the outcome was not as Antichos the Great would have wanted…

Rise of the Celts

It was several years ago I purchased some Corvus Belli Gauls but unfortunately they have sat in the lead mountain for far too long. However, over recent weeks I have finally progressed their painting and last Friday evening they their first outing. Deployed against them were my opponent’s equally new Kappadokians.

The Gallic host comprised both horse and chariots in limited numbers. Instead the bulk of the army comprised warriors on foot (4Wb) who were supported by a number of Gaesati (3Wb). After trekking long distances the Gauls found their enemy in the wilds of Asia Minor in a land famous for its horses, its fruit orchards and its worship of the mother goddess Ma, or so the histories would tell us. The armies deployed, the Gauls on an open plain the Kappadokians restricted somewhat by steep and rocky hills.

An initial advance along a road by over zealous Kappadokian cavalry against the Gallic right inspired a dramatic counter by the Gauls. The Gaesati moved swiftly towards the enemy horse while Celtic chariots and horse swarmed forward on the flanks of the Celtic mercenaries. The Kappadokian horse seemed likely to be overwhelmed.

Above and below the battle on the Gallic right.

Yet the gods of war turned and soon the Gauls were fighting for their own survival many cut down. Yet here the fickle gods intervened again, the remaining Celtic horse on the right now throwing back attackers repeatedly despite being outnumbered three to one.

Below, the Gallic horse on the right hotly engaged by overwhelming numbers. The battle is about to involve more troops as the centres are progressively engaged.

As the main battle lines clashed the Kappadokian general at the head of 1000 lancers pressed the Celtic chariots opposite opening eventually a hole in the Gallic line.

Yet the determined Celtic charioteers, under the Gallic commander, harried their advance at every turn darting forward and back their warriors fighting with great expertise from their chariots. Each side of the now fully engaged commanders, the armies were progressively to be engaged in deadly combat. Slowly in a series of progressive combats the Gallic foot, beating their shields with swords and spears, moved forward.

The pendulum of battle swung back & forth for some time with casualties mounting in both armies. The melee was both general and confusing. But slowly the Gallic heavy infantry were gaining the advantage.

Desperately seeking a breakthrough a further body of by Kappadokian lancers, riding partly armoured horses, crashed into another body of naked Gaesati. Determined to stand these mercenaries from Transalpine Gaul braced for the charge. When it came the Gaesati repulsed their attackers. Reforming the Kappadokian lancers charged again. Now broken up their formation disordered the Galatians cut them down without quarter.

Above, the general situation in the final moments of the battle. Below, the Gaesati repulse the enemy lancers.

The loss of the lancers was too great and demoralised from heavy losses the Kappadokians broke, their warriors fleeing for the hills. As they broke the Gallic warriors themselves exhausted focus on looting the dead and dying. The Gaesati, heroes of the battle, could be seen gathering Kappadokian heads to impale on stakes in celebration of their victory.

Some Kappadokian sources may well report that the Gauls only achieved a narrow victory. However, undisputed by all, was it had been an extremely enjoyable encounter and a fine game using two well presented armies. For the Gauls it was a great introduction to the DBA battlefield.

Galatian Incursions

Friday evening found a selection of armies converging on my temporary gaming room for an evening of DBA. As it turned out a Galatian theme developed.

Our first battle of the evening found the Galatians (Ben) migrating into the provinces of Asia Minor and clashed with the Kappadokians (Andrew). The Kappadokians had suffered a series of defeats recently so were keen to turn the tables on the most recent invader.

The two armies deployed and it was soon apparent the Galatians were advancing in the centre and right. This rapid advance by the Galatian centre was countered by a thrust against the Galatian left flank through various rocky paths over an area of basalt peaks. Below, the Galatians prepare to engage the Kappadokian centre which is already scattered. Visible in the Galatian line is a Scythed Chariot.

As both armies manoeuvred they slowly became more disjointed with the likely result the struggle would be prolonged. However, a sudden series of attacks were launched by the Kappadokians with great elan and surprisingly the Galatian morale shattered as each attack was driven home with devastating results. The Galatians fled suffering a devastating 4-1 loss for their invasion.

Discouraged but desperate for loot the Galatians (Ben) moved west towards Greece. From here they moved south along the coast towards an army assembled by Ptolemy Keraunos (Keith). Keraunos, deploying first, placed himself in the centre of the phalanx astride one of his several elephants with the intention of smashing his way through the Galatian line. However, as the Galatans deployed he became increasingly concerned about his right flank. Seemingly oblivious to potential threats he undertook to expand his right by a series of complex manoeuvres. The Galatian left, comprising mounted, surged forward. Macedonian casualties were immediate with a portion of the phalanx breaking at first contact under the Galatian mounted onslaught. However, slowly Keraunos gained the advantage and the Galatian left was driven back.

Above an below the armies engaged. The Greek left is held by Greek mercenary peltasts (3Ax) who would fight valiantly for some time against Galatian armoured warriors (4Bd) and naked warriors (4Wb). Below, the Greek right and a portion of the centre driving back the Galatian left and centre.

Elsewhere the fighting was both intense and certainly confusing with Greek sources unclear of all events. However, slowly the Galatians gained the advantage. Keraunos himself meanwhile, at the head of his pachyderms, pressed forward driving the Galatians to his front back. Though Keraunos fought valiantly his army finally collapsed with a 4-2 victory to the Galatians.

While the Galatians focused on their plunder Ptolemy Keraunos (Keith) reformed his army and move to counter another threat, this time by Antigonus Gonatas (Andrew). Gonatas had taken the opportunity to bolster his smaller phalanx with a number of Galatians, Greece was flush with mercenaries after all! Now both commanders deployed with their phalangites in the centre. Keraunos again deployed his elephants between the taxis in a commanding position on one beast. Gonatas meanwhile deployed on his left wing with his cavalry opposite Ptolemy’s mounted. On the opposite flank both commanders deployed their thureophoroi and other mercenaries, Ptolemy’s left flank resting on an small village.

Above, Ptolemy Keraunos army on the right foreground while in the distance Gonatas’s army can be seen. In the top right a Greek fleet is visible, this fleet failed to intervene in the battle, no doubt more focussed on supplying the army, or providing morale support!

Gonatas advanced with his right leading. But it was here that he miscalculated and found his thureophoroi engaged by a portion of Keraunos phalanx. Now both commanders rushed to reinforce the battle with reserves and eventually portions of their centre.

Above and below views of the centre and Ptolemy’s left where portions of the centre of both armies are being committed, creating a gap. Below, heavy casualties have befallen the Ptolemy left taxis visible here. Yet the survivors repeatedly drove back the Galatians who themselves had suffered heavy casualties. Likewise Ptolemy’s peltasts (3Ax) fought the Gonatas taxi to a standstill – amazingly.

Meanwhile on Keraunos right flank the cavalry of both armies were now involved in deadly combat, with Keraunos reinforcing his mounted with phalangites deployed in open order. Simultaneously Ptolemy engaged Gonatas’ centre with phalanx and his elephants who desperately attempted to secure the breakthrough.

The battle was particularly confusing with first one commander then the other commander securing a small but fragile advantage, only to watch as these hard earned gains slip away.

Above, Ptolemy in the forefront of the fighting tries to turn a portion of Gonatas’ line.

Finally Gonatas, his own army near exhaustion, gained a final advantage and Keraunos’ army broke. Yet, too exhausted to seize any real advantage, the price of a 4-3 victory, Gonatas breathed easy realising that his own army had only just survived this desperate battle for domination of Greece and Macedonia.

Another outstanding evening of gaming and one that drew in the Galatians in some form into each battle. No doubt they will return as will their Greek opponents…

Ariarathes of Kappadokia

One of my regular opponents had recently taken ownership of a new army – Ariarathid Kappadokian. Some DBA gaming on Friday evening provided him the perfect opportunity to take the field. For my part I quickly searched through possible historical opponents and in due course opted to use my Lysimachids. Given my lack of posts of late I thought a few photos and a brief summary was in order.

With a low aggression it was likely that the the Kappadokians would suffer an invasion by Lysimachus, yet it was not to be. Instead Ariarathes II invaded Lysimachos’ domains in the Spring of 299 BC at the head of an army comprising both mounted and foot in similar proportions. Lysimachos countered but with an army composed predominantly of infantry and with only a small mounted component.

Lysimachos deployed on a relatively open plain in a traditional deployment with his phalanx massed in the centre and his Thracians on the wings with his limited light horse massed on the right. However, Lysimachos had been negligent in his scouting and assumed he would be faced by hill tribesmen was somewhat taken back when Ariarathes instead deployed a considerable mounted force including a solid core of heavy cataphracts supported by light cavalry opposite his right flank. I really should check possible options for my opponents army!

Ariarathes moved with speed quickly committing his cavalry in a series of movements towards the Lysimachid right while attempting to pin the Greek phalanx with light infantry and a portion of light cavalry. Lysimachos recovering from his surprise undertook a series of reorganisations of his line. Eventually this would see his right extended and the gaps in the line occupied by the phalangites who progressively expanded their formations.

Above, the view of the battlefield with the Greeks on the left and the Kappadokians on the right. In the centre the Greek phalangites advance against Kappadokian light infantry.

Now Ariarathes hesitated and sensing his own left threatened ordered his mounted back. Lysimachos ordered his forces forward hoping to pin the retiring mounted against successive lines and eventually the rocky slopes of a rising hill to the Kappadokian left rear.

Lysimachos now trying to gain some advantage charged a body of Kappadokian light infantry at the head of his xystophoroi. Outflanked Lysimachos was pushed back but rallied his companions and charged again securing the breakthrough, above.

Charge and countercharge now followed all along the line until Ariarathes was wounded and carried from the field. With their commander wounded panic rippled through the Kappadokian army and its resolve dissipated. Lysimachos had gained a victory, despite his flawed deployment and having completely underestimated the Kappadokians.

Determined to seize the initiative Lysimachos later moved to invade the extremities of Kappadokia. For three months Lysimachos laid waste to portions of Kappadokia. Ariarathes having finally recovered from his wounds took the field in the autumn of 299 BC. Ariarathes advanced swiftly towards the Lysimachos, determined to arrest the threat to his kingdom and indeed his rule – Ariarathes was determined to be the invader. Lysimachos now fully aware of the threat to his infantry by Kappadokian cataphracts deployed his phalanx in shallower formations in a valley with a large town on his left and a series of hills on his right.

Above and below views of the battlefield with the Greeks on the left and the Kappadokians on the right. The basalt rock formations are hand made by the Kappadokian player.

With the Kappadokians constrained somewhat by a series of the steep basalt peaks Lysimachos ordered his army to advance quickly. With the phalangites in shallower formations and supported by his Thracians on the flanks Lysimachos had soon reduced Ariarathes’ options further. Unwilling to engage the Greek phalanx frontally Ariarathes ordered his light infantry to advance against the Greek right, though this was countered somewhat by Lysimachos at the head of his xystophoroi, below.

In due course Ariarathes’ advance by his left wing light troops would be supported by his cataphracts who wheeled as best they could against the Thracians. Simultaneously, Ariarathes ordered his infantry on the right flank to advance through the town and fall on the Greek left where his warriors and mercenaries had an advantage.

The cataphracts advanced and levelled their lancers for the charge.

The Thracians braced themselves and showing great determination for Lysimachos threw back many of the cataphracts. Only in the centre was the cataphract charge successful where Ariarathes, leading from the front, achieved a breakthrough. Yet before he could exploit this Lysimachos ordered forward a reserve of phalangites who soon reformed the line.

On the Greek left the Kappadokian warriors and mercenary hoplites simultaneously attacked and despite their denser formations and numeric advantages were thrown back by the Thracians and Greek light horse. Below, the Greek left pressed by Kappadokian foot including mercenary hoplites.

Demoralised by this reverse the Kappadokians here seemed unwilling to engage further.

Now the focus of the battle shifted to the centre where progressively the Greeks phalangites and supporting hoplites pressed the Kappadokian centre relentlessly while Ariarathes watched passively with his cataphracts unwilling to attack the Greeks opposite his front as he tried desperately to reinforce his centre.

The pressure on the Kappadokian centre was however too great. As dusk approached Ariarathes watched helplessly as his centre collapsed. Yet, making good his escape with the core of his army Ariarathes would clearly remain a thorn in the side of the Greek world.

In DBA terms both games were challenging for the commanders. The vagaries of the dice of course played a part. Several good PIP scores for the Kappadokian commander for example causing much consternation to the Lysimachos. Yet equally poor combat die rolls impacting several combats, particularly during the charge of the cataphracts in the second game. The Greeks were significantly out deployed and on the back foot in the first game. That they managed to recover somewhat continues to mystify me and I can, on reflection, only put this down to the dice gods.

The Greeks also had particularly difficult terrain choices due to the ability of the Kappadokians on one hand to dominate steep hills but who are equally able to deliver destructive attacks by cataphracts supported by light cavalry. This provided a quandary for the Greek player to either select an open battlefield or one more broken? Without doubt there are many more interesting interactions worth exploring between these two armies and others around Kappadokia.